Structure of the Stomach Channel

Stomach Organ and Channel
The primacy of the Stomach Qi  in early Chinese medical thinking:
In the Huai Nan Zi,  Di xing xun section, second century b.c. while each of the other four organs corresponding to an element is the now recognized Zang organ from TCM,  the Earth organ is ascribed to the Stomach. The biography of Chunyu Yi in the Shi ji of 90 b.c. identified the stomach as a Zang organ equivalent to lung, heart, liver, and kidneys, both these sources also associated the Stomach with the center. The unity of Spleen-Stomach as one compound term is seen frequently in the Su Wen.

隔明者表也, 五藏六腑之海也

The Yang Ming which is external, is the Sea of the Five Zang and Six Fu

Su Wen 29

This idea is recapitulated in Master Hua’s Classic of the Central Viscera: “If the Stomach Qi is strong, all of the five Zang and the six fu networks will be strong.”

Both Stomach and Spleen are seen as in the center of the body, the stomach is below and the Spleen above.

The stomach receives and ‘ferments’ the food. This is the original understanding. Digestion is a fermentation whereby the dregs are passed downwards and the refined substances passed upwards to the spleen.

The Stomach channel is the primary Yang Qi which descends the front of the body. It is the path of:

Physical embodiment
over expansion
congestion of blood upwards and downwards
congestion of phlegm upwards and downwards
generation of hot phlegm

The Stomach channel (as Yang Ming) has an abundance of Qi and an abundance of Blood

The Stomach is the great post-natal reservoir of Yang Ming Qi and Blood  – [WJY]

The Center Generates Damp   –     Suwen 5

The stomach is averse to (i.e. attacked by) Dryness, the Spleen is averse to (attacked by) Damp

Desire for more, the appetites, consuming experience –   the Stomach’s links to the Pericardium

Humor, being at ease, comfortable with oneself

Materialization and grounding

Capacity to endure – to be able to stomach something

Tears, Sadness and natural remorse,

the ‘path of tears’ suspended between Yin and Yang in the Tai Ji symbol , defining the descent of consciousness into form

Animal: Pig

Branch: Wu – a pounding mortar to bark rice

Time: 7 AM to 9 AM

Relationship to Pericardium

Third Station of the Cross: Jesus falls

Tree of Life  –  fourth branch on the right

Wu – St.His constancy under torture. On the seventh branch, the constancy and fortitude which he maintained in the torture and suffering of his rough and bitter cross

Clearing Questions

What sensations or  things do you crave?

What emotional state do you crave?

Where are you too stubborn in life?

What are you afraid to engage with in life?

What can’t you stomach?

Who are you feeding?

What parts of you do you feed? What are the different kinds of food?

What do you voice? Do you speak up enough? Or too much? Are you clear?

What do you regret? What do you feel real remorse about?

What are you not optimistic about?

The Stomach Channel clears Heat, esp. in the face and throat. It clears Yang-Ming level Fever- Qi level fever.

The Stomach Channel treats Stomach rebellious Qi with nausea and vomiting. The Channel also treats Stomach Qi not descending with pain and distention in the epigastrium. The Channel can also treat pain in the epigastrium from stomach yin deficiency or stomach fire.

The Stomach Channel can treat Yang Shen-spirit disturbance from Stomach or Heart fire disturbing the Shen Spirit or Phlegm Fire misting the Heart orifices.

(The Divergent channel of the Stomach Channel passes through the Heart and the Stomach Channel meets the Governor vessel at GV. 24 and GV. 26. Both of these connections serve to strengthen the Shen-Spirit calming effect of certain Stomach Channel points)

St. 1               Meeting point of the St., LI., Yang Qiao and Conception Channels.
Cheng Qi            Container of Tears                         Contain Tears            Containing Tears
(mian liao – face seam  /  Xi Xue – Mouse Hole  /  Yang Qi – Tearful Appearance Xi Xue – Stream Cave)

Contain Tears refers to the loc. at the lower eyelid which stores tears, hence treats excess tears.

St. 1 is one of the two most important local point for the eyes. (the other being UB. 1. St. 2 is frequently used in place of St. 1, especially in the West because of its location). St. 1 treats all eye problems. 

St. 1 is able to invigorate the Qi and Blood of the Eyes.

St. 1 can clear External Wind and Heat (and cold) from the eyes causing swelling, pain, burning and lacrimation.

St. 1 can also clear ascendant Liver Yang or Flaring of Liver Fire causing redness and burning of the eyes. St. 1 is also used when internal movement of Liver Wind causes blepharospasm (twitching of the eyelids) and opisthotonos (upward staring eyes).

St. 1 can also aid in the treatment of Liver Yin and Blood deficiency with such symptoms as dry eyes, blurry vision, floaters, failing vision, night blindness etc.

To needle St. 1 the patient closes their eyes and looks upwards. The practitioner’s finger pushes the eye ball upwards and the needle is inserted firstly at a slightly inferior angle and then perpendicularly between the eyeball and the inferior wall of the orbit. Clinically it is normally needled ¼ -½ a cun but it can, with care,  be needled about 1 cun. The needle is not moved once in place and attention should be paid to manage any hematoma.

St. 2            Yang Qiao meeting point (GM)
Si Bai            Four Whites

Four Whites indicates the white area around the eye that this point treats. -(GTW)

Four Brightness indicates the points. Ability to brighten the eye (I&F)

ST . 2 is used mainly as a substitute for St. 1.

St. 2 is also used as a local point for facial problems such as facial paralysis, trigeminal neuralgia, maxillary sinusitis and allergic facial swelling. To treat this the point is often joined to other local facial points.

St. 2 can also treat round worm in bile duct (see notes LI.20) for which it is often threaded to LI. 20.

Deep insertion along the foramen or strong stimulation is contraindicated due to the risk of damaging the infraorbital nerve.

St. 3            St., Yang Qiao and LI meeting point (ATRSG)
Ju Liao          Great Crevice       great seam      Great Bore Hole     Big Bone      Large Opening

Great Bone-Hole and Large Opening indicates it’s location in the hole/opening of the cheek bone. (GTW)/(I&F)

St. 3 is not used much. It is mainly used for local facial indications such as facial paralysis, toothache, inability to show the teeth and trigeminal neuralgia  Also  nasal indications such as rhinitis, epistaxis and nasal obstruction.

The pulse here measures the Qi of the teeth and mouth (along with St. 6 and 9) (ATRSG)

St. 4  St., LI., Yang Qiao and Conception Channels meeting point
Di Cang        Earth Granary
(Hui Wei – Meeting Crease    Wei Wei – Stomach Crease)

Earth Granary indicates its location next to the mouth who’s role is like that of a granary to receive food. -(GTW)

St. 4 is one of the main points to treat facial paralysis, especially with deviation of the mouth as is commonly seen in post stroke and Bell’s palsy. St. 4 is also indicated for excessive salivation, gum problems, mouth ulcers..

The Nei Jing lists St. 4 for  leg disorders  in the facial body map St. 4 approximately corresponds to the medial thigh.

In face acupuncture St. 4 corresponds to the medial thigh.

Fecal stoppage in children (Fund)

Patients who talk too much on the treatment table! (RS)

St. 4 is frequently  joined by transverse needling to St. 6, SI. 18, LI. 20 or CV. 24 in the treatment of facial paralysis.

St. 5                 
Da Ying        Great Welcome      Big Welcome     Great Reception
(Sui Kong – marrow hole)

Great Reception indicates that it is proximal to where the ST channel welcomes the LI channel or that it is proximal to the lower jawbone a.k.a. the great reception bone.-(GTW)

St. 5 is used for local indications such as parotitis, lockjaw, cheek swelling, inability to chew, dislocation of the jaw, toothache, swollen or indurated submandibular glands etc.

After birth the post heavenly Qi flows from this point to the rest of the body (RL)

Strong needle stimulation is contraindicated due to the proximity of the facial artery and vein. This point can be needled transversely to St. 4 and St. 6.

St. 6              Ghost point
Jia Che         Jaw Bone     Jaw vehicle
(JI Guan – Mechanical Hinge  / Qu Ya – Corner of Teeth /  Gui Chuang – Ghost Bed)

Jaw bone refers to it’s location on the jaw bone.  Jaw Vehicle is an ancient name for the jaw bone which is a vehicle that carries teeth.-(GTW)


St. 6 is one of the two main local points for Jaw problems. (along with St. 7).

St. 6 clears both External Wind and Internal Wind disorders affecting the jaw, gums, teeth and face.

St. 6 is a major point for the treatment of toothache, especially of the lower jaw, gums and teeth.

St. 6 treats local indications such as parotitis, lockjaw, cheek swelling, inability to chew, dislocation of the jaw, tooth grinding,  toothache, swollen or indurated submandibular glands, facial acne  etc.

St. 6 is one of the 13 ghost points.

St. 6 is also indicated for stiff neck, aversion to Wind and Cold and loss of voice.

The pulse here measures the Qi of the mouth and teeth (along with St. 3 and 9) (ATRSG)

In facial Acupuncture this area corresponds to the patella.

St. 6 can be joined by transverse insertion to St. 4, St. 5, St. 7.

St. 6 can be needled by transverse insertion towards the upper or lower jaw for toothache.

St. 7            St. and GB Channel meeting point
Xia Guan            Below The Joint            Lower Hinge

Lower Hinge indicates the location and area of influence. (I&F)  Below the Joint obviously indicates it’s location. -(GTW)


St. 7 is one of the two main local points for Jaw problems. (along with St. 6).

St. 7 is an important point for blockage Bi syndromes affecting the jaw, treating inhibited opening and closing of the jaws, temporomandibular arthritis, temporomandibular joint syndrome (TMJ), dislocated jaw, lockjaw etc.

St. 7 is an important local point in treating the ear. It is indicated for tinnitus, deaf- mutism, ear pain, itching and otorrhea (discharge of the ear).

St. 7 is also indicated for the cheek, teeth and facial nerves treating trigeminal neuralgia, facial paralysis etc

May correspond to the Hand in the Facial Acupuncture system.

Treats excessive yawning

Perpendicular and slightly inferior insertion ½ to 1 cun, or join the point by transverse insertion to SI. 19, ST. 6,  SI. 18 etc.

St. 8              Meeting point of the St., GB and Yang Wei Channels.
Tou Wei            Head’s Binding            Head Support            Head Corner

Head Corner refers to the location of this point at the corner of the forhead.-(GTW)

Skulls Safeguard…wei can mean to tie up, safeguard, preserve and support like a suture, it is also said to be the palce where chinese fastened their hats in ancient times.-(I&F)


St. 8 is an important headache and dizziness point.

St. 8 can disperse External Wind invasion of the Channels of the head resulting in headache and vertigo.

St. 8 can also assist in clearing Internal Wind and Phlegm Damp, causing headache, splitting headache, vertigo and hemiplegia.

St. 8 is mainly used for temporal and frontal headaches, it is often used in the treatment of migraines, especially if accompanied by eye symptoms or nausea and vomiting.

St. 8 can clear Wind invasion of the eyes treating bursting eye pain, dimness of vision, blurred vision, blepharospasm (spasms of the eyelids) and sore eyes with excessive tearing.

St. 8 can also treat wheezing accompanied by irritability and fullness of the chest.

St. 8 Can treat hair loss.

This point can be needled with transverse insertion toward the frontal, temporal, parietal and vertex region as needed.

St. 8 is traditionally forbidden to moxibustion.

St. 9               Window of Heaven point.                        Point of the Sea of Qi.
««Meeting point of the St. and GB Channels.
Ren Ying            Man’s Welcome
(Wu Hui – Five Meetings /  Tian Wu Hui – Heaven’s Five Meetings)

Man’s Welcome refers to the location of the point on the ST channel where the channel Qi descends intot he mid-body zone associated with the aspect of man within the triad of heaven, man, and earth.(I&F)  Mans Prognosis indicates that palpating this point can aid in establishing a patient’s prognosis. -(GTW)


St. 9 is an important local point to Benefit the throat and clear masses in the throat it is indicated in treating goiter, swelling and pain of the throat and dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) and speech impediment.

St. 9 is a Window of Heaven point so It treats Ni Qi (perverse, rebellious uprising Qi) with Yang uprising and headache, hypertension and Stomach and Lung Ni Qi with vomiting, fullness in the chest, chest pain, wheezing, red complexion etc.

St. 9 is also indicated for acute lower back strain due to chaotic upsurging of Qi (also a Window of Heaven indication)

St. 9 is indicated for both high and low blood pressure due to the proximity of the carotid baro-recepointors. Clinically, however, it is more commonly used for hypertension.

The pulse here measures the Qi of the mouth and teeth (along with St. 3 and 6)

The pulse here also measures the quality and quantity of the Qi of the upper body, and the general state of Yang Qi and the ascent of Qi. (ATRSG)

The pulse here measures the Qi of the St. Channel and the state of the arterial circulation of the body (because the Yang Ming contains more Qi and more Blood) (YR)

One of the five original Window of Heaven points hence the alternate name Tian Wu Hui – Heaven’s Five Meetings

Western clinicians tend to use this point in treating both hyper and hypo-thyroidism and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (RS)

“When the Sea of Qi is excess there is fullness in the chest, urgent breathing and red complexion. When the Sea of Qi is deficient there is scanty energy insufficient for speech” (Nei Jing Ling Shu) Points of the sea of Qi are St. 9,

CV. 17, GV.15  and GV.14.

Care must be taken when needling not to puncture the carotid artery. The practitioner must first palpate the artery and then manually move the artery laterally away from the thyroid cartilage, placing the thumb and index finger of one hand superiorly and inferiorly to the site of insertion. In this way the needle may pass medial of the artery between the artery and the thyroid cartilage.

Many clinicians in the West needle this point with very shallow subcutaneous insertion, which is much safer.

St. 9 is classically forbidden to moxibustion.

Electrical stimulation is contraindicated at St. 9 due to the proximity of the carotid baro-recepointors.

St. 10
Shui Tu            Water Prominence
(Shui Men – Water Gate)

Water Prominence may indicate the feel of the carotid artery which is like a gentle splash of water at this point.  When liquids are swolled this point protrudes.  -(GTW)

St. 10 is not an important TCM point. Treats local indications such as sore throat, diseases of the vocal cords, goiter, dyspnea, coughing and asthma.

St. 10  measures thyroid functioning in EAV -electro-acupuncture according to Voll  (Dr. Voll)

                        Same needling cautions as St. 9

St. 11
Qi She            Abode of Qi                        Qi’s Residence            Qi’s Abode

Qi Abode might refer to it’s location next to the trachea where the breath passes.  Bestowal is another traslation of She, which reflects the idea of the ST suppliing Qi for the lung during a cough.

St. 11 is not an important TCM point. It treats local throat, neck and Lung indications such as sore throat, goiter, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), difficulty turning the head, wheezing and hiccup.

St. 11  measures thymus functioning in EAV. It can be used to treat chronic immune dysfunction.  (Dr. Voll)

Perpendicular needle insertion 0.3-0.5 cun. Deep needling here may puncture the Lungs.

St. 12
««            Meeting point of the St., LI., S.I., TB, GB and lung Channels.
Que Pen            Empty Basin
(Tian Gai – Heaven’s Canopy,   Heavens Cover,   Heaven’ Top)

Empty Basin refers to it’s location in the supraclavicular fossa.  (GTW)

St. 12 is the meeting point of many yang Channels (similar to G,V. 14 located on the same level as St. 12 on the spine). St. 12 therefore helps to descend rebellious Qi e.g. lung and stomach rebellious Qi (many points in the shoulder region descend rebellious Qi) with such indications as throat pain, cough and coughing blood, dyspnea, severe abdominal edema, fullness of the chest and heat in the chest.

St. 12, for this same reason that it descends the Qi, calms the mind and is contraindicated in pregnancy.

St. 12 can also be a local treatment for shoulder pain radiating to the neck, inability to raise the arm and thoracic outlet syndrome.

St. 12 is also indicated for lumbar pain with inability to turn.

St. 12 is needled with perpendicular insertion 0.3-0. 5 cun in a slightly anterior direction along the posterior border of the clavicle.  Needling too deeply or too posteriorly may result in puncturing the Lung or damaging the subclavian artery and vein or the brachial plexus.

St. 13
Qi Hu            Qi Door            Qi’s Door            Qi’s Household
Qi Door refers to it’s location where celestial Qi and breath must pass down through to reach the lung.

St. 13            is not an important TCM point. It is mainly used for Lung problems.

St. 13 is indicated for local indications such as fullness and pain in the chest,  cough, dyspnea, asthma, wheezing, hiccup, vomiting blood, intercostal neuralgia, pain in the upper back and pain in the neck with difficulty turning the head.

St. 13 is also indicated for edema of the limbs (fund)

St. 13 is indicated for inability to taste food (M of A)

In Japanese acupuncture St 13 tenderness is a reflex of, and treatment for, ileo-inguinal ligament problems – typically ipsilateral prolapse and hernial problems.

St. 13 is needled with oblique insertion either laterally or medially 0.5- 0.8 cun or with transverse insertion inferiorly along the channel.  Care must be taken not to puncture the Lung.

St. 14
Ku Fang            Storehouse

Storeroom reflects the position of this point over the chest which stores the heart and lung.  It also reflects it’s position and influence over the breast which stores the milk.

All TCM indications same as St. 13.

St. 15
Wu Yi            Room Screen            Roof Screen

Roof reminds us of it’s location and function since the lung is the roof of the five viscera also the female breast rises at this point like the slanting roof of a house.  (GTW)

St. 15 is indicated for local indications such as fullness and pain in the chest,  cough, dyspnea, asthma, wheezing, hiccup, vomiting blood.

St. 15 also treats the breasts treating breast pain and breast abscess.

St. 15 alleviates pain and itching of the skin treating Wind itching aggravated by clothing, generalized itching, pain exacerbated by Wind, heaviness and swelling of the body and pain and weakness of the limbs. (The name Wu Yi – Room Screen is suggestive of this points power in dispelling Wind, reminiscent as it is of Yi Feng – Wind Screen TB. 17)

St. 16
Ying Chuang      Breast  Window                        Breast’s Window

Breast Window refers to the location where Qi and milk pass into the breast like light through a window.  (GTW)

St. 16 is not an important TCM point. It is indicated for coughing, wheezing and chest indications, and for breast indications such as mastitis and breast abscess.

St. 16 is also indicated in TCM for borborygmus (intestinal noises), watery diarrhea and intestinal hernial pain. (M of A)

                        St. 16 is also indicated in TCM for fever and chills, restless sleep and swelling of the lips (Fund)

St. 17
Ru Zhong            Middle of the Breast

Breast Center is derived from it’s location at the center of the nipple.  (GTW)

Forbidden to both needle and moxibustion.

St. 17 can be moxa-ed indirectly  (ATRSG)

St. 18          The Xu Li – The Great Luo of the Stomach Channel.
Ru Gen            Root of the Breast                        Breast’s Root

Breast Root is derived from Its location at the base of the breast.  (GTW)/(I&F)


St. 18 is the most commonly used breast point. St. 18 can treat Stomach Fire or Liver Qi Stagnation giving rise to pain, distention, swelling or abscess of the breast.

St. 18 is also indicated to regulate and promote lactation and to promote smooth labor and the expulsion of the placenta (suggesting the relationship of the breasts to oxytocin release)

St. 18 Can treat asthma and chest conditions and Liver Qi stagnation, giving rise to oppression of the diaphragm, esophageal constriction and difficult swallowing, and inversion counterflow of the four limbs etc.

St. 18 is said to be, in some TCM traditions, the ‘Xu Li’  the Great Luo of the Stomach Channel. This is taken to mean the Qi, blood and body fluids pour down and are abundant here. The Great Luo of the Stomach is said to be where the pulse ‘throbs ceaselessly beneath the hand’.

St. 18 is said with CV. 23 to be the pathway of the ‘Jin Ye’  body fluids, treating thirst and dehydration.

St. 19.
Bu Rong            Not Contained            Uncontainable

Not Contained reminds us that this point is no longer within the borders of the rib cage.   If the ST is filled to this point it can no longer contain food.  The name is also a reference to it’s function since it treats vomiting.  (GTW)

The name of St. 19 means ‘cannot be contained’ is a reference to it’s use in treating nausea and vomiting.

Due to it’s location St. 19 can be used to treat gastrectasis (dilation of the stomach, often from pyloric stenosis), stomach ache, hypochondriac pain, nausea and vomiting, often due to cholelithiasis or cholecystitis.

St. 19 is also indicated for labored breathing with raising of the shoulders to breathe, pain in the chest, back and shoulders.

St. 19 is also indicated in TCM for dry mouth, poor appetite, night blindness and infantile ulceration of the eyelids.

Deep insertion here could puncture the Heart or Liver if they are enlarged.

St. 20
Cheng Man     Supporting Fullness            Support fullness

Assuming fullness is located just below the ST, assuming a position of support for the fullness of the ST.   This point also treats fullness of the abdomen and ribs.

St. 20 is not an important TCM point.

St. 20 treats Qi ascent dyspnea, stomach ache, vomiting, vomiting blood, abdominal distention, borborygmus, diarrhea, hardness and pain in the lateral costal region, jaundice,  anorexia. (Spleen Deficiency).

St. 20 opens the Stomach after eating and reduces fullness after eating (RL)

Deep insertion here could puncture the Liver if it is enlarged. In thin patients, deep needling might penetrate the peritoneal cavity from this point to St. 30.

St. 21 
Liang Men            Beam Gate                        Door of the Beam

Beam Gate treats a condition called “deep lying beam” in which a mass the size of an arm located in the upper abdomen causes irratibility and insomnia.   Liang also refers to millet and suggests a relationship with the SP and ST and the internal opening of the ST that recieves food and grain.  (I&F)/(GTW)



St. 21 is used mainly for acute excess stomach problems, especially with stagnation, Ni rebellious Qi and heat.

St. 21 is the main point on the Stomach Channel for epigastric pain, ulcer pain, hiatal hernia, nausea and vomiting etc.

St. 21 is useful for Qi accumulation syndromes as in Liver Qi stagnation, Liver attacking Stomach and palpable mass below the heart. (the term Liang in the name refers to one of the five accumulations. The ‘Liang’ accumulation refers to palpable mass below the Heart).

St. 21 can also raise the Spleen-Stomach yang in diarrhea and prolapse.

In general C.V. 12, with which St. 21 is parallel, is used more for deficiency and St. 21 more for excess.

St. 21 is used more for acute excess Stomach problems In contrast with St. 25 which is used more for acute excess Intestinal problems.

In Japanese acupuncture tenderness to palpation at the right St. 21 is said to be a stomach ulcer reflex, and at left St. 21 it is said to be a duodenal ulcer reflex.

St. 21 is also known as a stress reflex from yang energy uprising (SCM neck tension) (Jap. Acu.)

Deep insertion here could puncture the Liver if it is enlarged. In thin patients, deep needling might penetrate the peritoneal cavity.

St. 22
Guan Men            Pass Gate                        Gate                        Hinge of Gate

Pass Gate refers to it’s location where digesta passes on its way to the intestines.

St. 22 is not an important TCM point.

St. 22 treats a sensation of Qi moving in the abdomen, abdominal Qi accumulation, abdominal pain, distention and fullness. St. 22 also treats peri-umbilical pain.

St. 22 treats wandering Qi creating tension on either side of the umbilicus

(Bronze statue textbook 1027 AD)

Tai Yi            Supreme Unity                        Great Yi

Yi originally meant  the intestines of a fish and hence reflects this point location and affect on the bowel.  As the one thing (supreme unity) splits to become heaven and earth so the turbid and the clear are divided at ST-23.

St. 23 calms the Shen-Spirit and treats psycho-emotional disorders. (St. 23 can transform phlegm which can Calm the Shen-Spirit when Phlegm-Fire is disturbing the Heart or phlegm is misting the Heart’s orifices)

St. 23  treats madness, agitation, mania, withdrawal, mad walking and vexation. St. 23 also treats abdominal pain, diarrhea and stomach pain especially if these  disorders arise along with Shen Spirit disturbance.

In Japanese acupuncture they see a reflex relationship between St. 23 and C.V. 19. There is also speculation in Japanese acupuncture that the character employed in the name  Yi is used as a pictographic representation of the flexures of the colon. Others have speculated that the use of the philosophical term ‘Tai Yi’ which is the state of undifferentiation prior to the separation into Yin and Yang implies that at this abdominal level the food was thought to have been as yet not differentiated into pure and impure. (M of A).

St. 24
Hua Rou Men            Slippery Flesh Gate                                    Door of Slippery Flesh

Slippery flesh gate refers to it’s location near the pylorus, small intestine opening, which is a “gate of slippery flesh”.  ST-24 treats tongue disorders(slippery flesh) (GTW)

St. 24 is not an important TCM point.

St. 24 has similar indications to St. 23 but is slightly more indicated for excess type mental disorders with stomach fire blazing – yang madness, epilepsy, tongue thrusting, stiff tongue, lotus flower tongue.

St. 23 also treats stomach pain and vomiting.

St. 24 treats rectal prolapse (Fund.)

St. 25  
««««            Front Mu point of the Large Intestine.
Tian Shu            Heaven’s Pivot            Heaven’s Axis             Celestial Pivot

Celestial Pivot:  Essential Question states: The area above the celestial pivot is ruled by the celestial Qi;  The area below the celestial pivot is ruled by the earthly Qi.  The place where these Qi intersect is the origin of man’s Qi and the ten thousand things.”  Tian Shu is also the ancient name of the central star in the Northern Dipper which the other six stars rotate.  (GTW)

(Chang Xi – Long Stream  /   Chang Gu – Long Valley

Xun Ji –   Following the Edge, Follow the Border     Gu Men – Valley Gate)



St. 25 primarily treats excess abdominal and intestinal disorders, especially diarrhea and dysentery of all types.

St. 25 breaks Qi stagnation in the lower abdomen treating pain and blockage. St. 25 helps regulate the menses, treats gynecological abdominal masses, treats constipation, helps eliminate stones, parasites etc. treats back painetc.

St. 25 regulates the spleen and so can treat acute and chronic gastritis and enteritis and drain damp in edema and urinary problems.

St. 25 Can regulate the stomach in vomiting etc.

The name of St. 25 means ‘heaven’s pivot’ and implies the division between the Stomach above and the Intestines below, and between the pre-natal earth Qi and the post-natal Heavenly Qi, hence it is a psychologically centering point.

St. 25 can be needled perpendicularly, or obliquely and inferiorly to treat the uterus. St 25  can be needled laterally toward Sp. 15 for constipation.

St. 26
Wai Ling            Outer Mound                        Outer Tomb

Outer Mound refers to the location of this point on the bulges of the rectus abdominus muscles.  (GTW)

St. 26 is not an important point in TCM.

St. 26 is indicated for severe abdominal pain and distention, Shan disorder (hernia) and painful menstruation.

St. 26 corresponds to MacBurney’s point, used diagnostically for acute appendicitis (YR). The intensity of pain of acute appendicitis corresponds well to the traditional indications of this point.

St. 27
Da Ju            The Great

Great Gigantic may indicate the location of this point at the largest part of the lower abdomen. (GTW)

St. 27 treats abdominal pain in excess stomach patterns.

St. 27 has also  been used for premature ejaculation and spermatorrhea ,- so it can tonify yang and restrain the Jing essence. (St. 27 probably has this association because it is 2 cun lateral to the Front Mu point of the triple burner at C.V. 5).

St.27 also has indications of treating scrotal and genital swelling and pain.

In Japanese acupuncture palpatory tenderness at this point and St.25 -26 -27 on the left side corresponds to Liver blood stagnation in the lower Jiao, and on the right to lowered immunity, glandular and lymphatic exhaustion and deficient lung Qi. (St. 27 is close to  Macburney’s  point, the appendix reflex, an immune organ and a reflection of Metal in Jap. Acu.).

St. 28  
Shui Dao            Water Passage                        Waterway

Waterway refers to this point’s control over and location near the ureter.  (I&F)

ST-28 is able to affect the body’s water metabolism hence the name.  (GTW)


St. 28 is commonly used for bladder, prostate and urinary problems and damp heat in the lower burner. (hence the name water path). It is indicated for retention of urine, nephritis, cystitis, orchitis, ascites, urinary tract infections and prostatitis.

St. 28, like St. 29, can also be used for gynecological cold and blood stagnation, withindications of pain in the lower abdomen extending to the genitals, infertility, cold in the uterus which radiates downwards, uterine masses, lumbar pain during menses etc.

St. 28 has an occasional association with lumbar pain- (Water – U.B. Channel connection- also the psoas muscle is accessible deep to this point, often responsible for back pain and associated, in applied kinesiology, with the Kidney Channel (Water again)).

St. 28 can, like St .30  and St.29, also be used for prolapse and hernia.

St. 28 is more commonly used for urinary symptoms and St. 29 more for gynecological symptoms (RS).

Deep needling from St. 28 – St. 30 may penetrate the urinary bladder, especially if it is full. For this reason it is often a good idea to ask patients to empointy the bladder before needling.

St. 29  
Gui Lai            Return

Return refers to this point’s influence on the menses and it’s ability to return the fetus to normal position.  (I&F)   It also treats menstrual block and returns the cycle to normal.  A divergent branch of the ST channel returns one cun below this point at ST30.  (GTW)


The name of St. 29  ‘Return’ suggests returning the menses. St. 29 is known for treating amenorrhea, especially from deficiency, cold or blood stagnation. (the first character ‘Gui’ is the same as the ‘Gui’ of the herb Dang Gui the preeminent TCM herb for gynecological cold and blood stagnation). St. 29 is also indicated for uterine masses, uterine prolapse, swelling, pain and cold in the vagina, lack of sexual desire, undescended testicles, impotence, seminal emission, endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease., etc.

St. 29 can, like St. 27, 28 and especially St 30, be used for prolapse, shan disorder, running piglet Qi and hernia.

Extra point Zi Gong -palace of the fetus-  is one cun lateral to this point which underscores its use for stagnant blood in the uterus.

St. 29  stands in slight contrast here with St. 28. St. 28 is used more for excess and heat conditions, whereas St. 29 is used more for Cold and Deficiency conditions.

St. 30              Meeting point of the St. and Penetrating Vessel
««Point of the Sea of Nourishment (Sea of Water and Grain – Shui Gu zhi Hai)
Qi Chong            Rushing Qi                        Pouring Qi

Qi’s Breakthrough refers to the Qi of the ST channel and other vessels that intersect, gather and surface from the body at this point.  Chong is also the name of the penetrating vessel which begins it’s external pathway at this point.  (I&F)

Surging Qi reflects the location of this point at the beginning of the Chong Channel and also reflects the function of this point employed in treating surging counterflow.  (GTW)


St. 3